Glaser Collection of South Arabian Antiquities

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One of the most important late 19th century travelers to Yemen was the Austrian Eduard Glaser, who commented on life in the Ottoman era and collected South Arabian inscriptions and antiquities. His work is archived in several places in Vienna. In the Kunsthistorische Museum there is a small collection of South Arabian art that he collected.  I visited this last week and provide several pictures of what can be seen.

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The Glaser Collection in the museum

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A project is underway to provide open access to the squeezes that Glaser made of South Arabian inscriptions.

New Bibliographic Resource for Yemen

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Much has been made of Iran’s alleged support of the Huthi regime in Yemen. Lost in the glare of the politics is a remarkable resource in Iran for anyone interested in the history of Yemen and its culture, and indeed for the whole history of Islam and the region. This is a website devoted to classical Arabic and Persian texts, including several which are relevant to Yemen. It boasts some 6,742 books and over 27,000 journal articles.

Among the texts available to read and to search online are al-Hamdānī’s Ṣifat jazīrat al-‘Arab, Nashwān ibn Sa‘īd al-Ḥimyarī’s Mulūk Ḥimyar wa-aqyāl al-Yaman, al-Burayḥī’s Ṭabaqāt ṣulaḥā’ al-Yaman, al-Janadī’s Sulūk, al-Khazrajī’s al-‘Uqūd al-lu’lu’iyya, plus many more. In addition there is an online searchable edition of al-Zabīdī’s Tāj al-‘arūs, the lexicon of lexicons.

yemensearchThe remarkable feature of this website is that you can search the entire collection or search within an individual text.  For example, if you type اليمن into the overall search function, it will give you hundreds of hits in a variety of Arabic books and journal articles, as noted above.

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If you go to a specific text, like al-Hamdānī’s geographical text, and type in a location (like ذمار), you get all the times it occurs in the text.

Continue reading New Bibliographic Resource for Yemen

Noha Sadek on AIYS

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Noha Sadek in AIYS office in Bayt al-Sammān, December 1997

Since I landed in Sanaa for the first time on a brisk early morning with Ed Keall and four other members of the Canadian Mission of the Royal Ontario Museum in Zabīd, Yemen became the main focus of my research and AIYS played an important role in providing a reassuring base, administrative support as well as contacts with fellow researchers. Located near the Tourism office on Taḥrīr Square, AIYS in 1982 was a small house whose director, Leigh Douglas, gave us spartan but reassuring headquarters. Gazing then at AIYS’s colourful qamariyas, I had little inkling that I would return to Yemen three years later for my Ph.D. thesis research on Rasulid architecture.

Thus, I deemed myself lucky to have been awarded the AIYS doctoral fellowship for 1985-86. I shrugged off objections voiced over the fellowship being given to a Canadian, and I spent most of my six-month research period in Ta‘izz studying its magnificent Rasulid monuments. By then, AIYS had moved to a house on 26 September street but I did not reside there during my trips to Sanaa as I lived in Selma Al-Radi’s house in ḥārat al-ʿAjamī, an alley named after the family that owned most of the buildings in it, and whose major landmark was the French Centre for Yemeni Studies (CFEY). I subsequently returned to Yemen to continue work on Zabīd with the CAMROM, and with the help of local historian ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḥaḍramī I succeeded in mapping the town’s 86 mosques. Our common interest in Yemeni architecture made Selma and I decide to embark on a survey of Yemen’s painted mosques, for which we received an AIYS grant in 1993 that allowed us to hire a car and a driver that made travel to remote mountainous regions, where several of these incredible buildings were located, a lot easier.

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Noha Sadek on the mosque trail in Zabid (Photo by Ed Keall)

Continue reading Noha Sadek on AIYS

Imagine if the British chose Socotra over Aden

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Captain Haines of the Royal British Navy purchased the port of Aden from the sultan of Lahj in 1837, returning in January 1839 with 700 troops to take control and built a refueling depot for the British Navy en route to India. He served as the administration assistant of Aden from 1839-1854. At the time it is estimated that the population of Aden was a mere 600 people, about half of whom were Jews. In seven years the town had been rebuilt and it was home to 25,000 as a free port.

But in 1833 he was on a different mission, an attempt to purchase the island of Socotra from the Mahri sultan in Qishin. Here is his account of meeting with the sultan, who refused to sell his tribal inheritance to the British crown. Imagine if he had and the port of Aden had been ignored…

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‘Rough Pencil Sketch from the Point Bungalo Ras Marbut, Aden’ by Stafford Bettesworth Haines

“Memoir  of the  South  and  East   Coasts  of Arabia.”    By Captain STAFFORD BETTESWORTH HAINES, I. N.
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 15:104-166, 1845

[p. 107] A direct communication by steam being the anxious object of the Supreme Government of India, it was considered probable that Sokoṭrah might answer as a depôt. I was, consequently, sent on a mission to Keshín to obtain the island by purchase.

Continue reading Imagine if the British chose Socotra over Aden

Travels to Aden and Mocha in the mid 19th Century, #6

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Coffee hills of Yemen (from Niebuhr’s travels)

This post continues the story of Joseph B. F. Osgood (1823-1913), whose Notes of Travel or Recollections of Majunga, Zanzibar, Muscat, Aden, Mocha, and other Eastern Ports (Salem: George Creamer, 1854) describes the Arabian coastline, like a 19th century Ibn Baṭūṭṭa. For Part #1, click here; for Part #2, click here; for Part #3, click here; for Part #4, click here; for Part #5, click here.

Osgood provides details on the coffee plant and its distribution to the port of Mocha:

“The coffee plant grows sixteen or eighteen feet high, with an upright stem covered with a light brown bark. Its branches grow horizontally and opposite, crossing each other, and form a pyramidical appearance. The leaves grow on the opposite side of the branches, to the length of four or five inches, and to half that width in the middle. The flowers, growing in bunches at the junction of the leaves, are white, maturing first into green, then red berries resembling bunches of cherries, [p. 181] each of which contains two kernels. But one crop is annually produced, which is gathered in the months of January and February. For the purpose of being dried in the sun, the gathered coffee is spread on the house-tops, or cleared spaces of ground, where it is frequently watered to open the koke, or shell, which is always separated by grinding before packing. The coffee raised at Annas and Sana, which is held in the best estimation, is generally dried upon temporary floors, covered with a compost of clay and cow ordure, which protects the coffee from vermin and also gives it a permanent yellowish color. How perceptibly such a compost may affect the taste of the coffee would doubtless be a matter of inquiry with the tidy, cow-loving Hindu house-wife, who uses a solution of it to purify her parlors, ornament her walls and doorways, and for numerous other purposes.

Large quantities of coffee arrive at Mocha, from March to the latter part of July, from the coffee districts within twenty days’ journey. Camels are employed in its transportation, each of which carries about six hundred pounds, contained in two sacks. They are driven in long trains of fifty or more, arranged one behind another, the head of each being tied to the tail of the camel immediately before him. Thus arranged but few drivers are necessary.

Continue reading Travels to Aden and Mocha in the mid 19th Century, #6

Kaplan Grants for Yemen

kaplan(left to right: Dr Salwa Dammaj, Dr. Mohammed Gerhoum, Mohanad Ahmed Al Syani and other members of GOAMM)

The CAORC Kaplan Responsive Preservation Initiative awarded several projects for the preservation of the cultural heritage in Yemen.  AIYS  delivered the funds in a meeting held on Saturday, September 1, 2018. The meeting brought together the Resident Director of AIYS in Yemen Dr. Salwa Dammaj, Dr. Mohammed Gerhoum, Mohanad Ahmed Al Syani, Chairman of the General Organisation of Antiquities, Museums and Manuscripts of Yemen (GOAMM) , Shadad Al-Alie, Director of GOAMM in Dhamar,  and Abdul Karim Al Nahari, Deputy Director of GOAMM.  A number of officials in GOAMM were also in attendance.
 During the meeting, AIYS delivered the CAORC RPI award funds for the following projects:

1-Zafar’s Museum in the city of Ibb

2-Saiyoun’s Museum in Hadramawt

3-Baynun’s Museum  in the city of Dhamar

4- Dhamar`s Museum .

The  details about the start of the work and necessary requirements to get the projects done in accordance with the conditions agreed on with CAORC were discussed.
 AIYS will help CAORC follow up on the progress of the work at each site and field visits will be paid to the aforementioned museums where the projects are being carried out.

Submitted by Dr. Salwa Dammaj

Nathalie Peutz on AIYS

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Nathalie Peutz in Homhil, Soqotra (2003, AIYS fellowship)

It was during my first summer in Yemen as a novice Arabic student at the Yemen Language Center (YLC) in 1999 that I discovered the American Institute for Yemeni Studies and all that it had to offer. Conversations with prominent scholars based at or passing through YLC and a fortuitous meeting with AIYS resident director Marta Colburn led to my applying for a NMERTA/AIYS language fellowship for the following summer and, over time, to a fulfilling career that I owe entirely to Yemen and the repeated forms of AIYS support that helped launch it. Looking back, it is difficult for me to imagine how I would have navigated my anthropological research in Yemen or my academic career without the financial, material, logistical, and social support in addition to the physical base that AIYS provided.

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Justin Stearns on the roof of the AIYS hostel on al-Bawniya Street (2003)

Continue reading Nathalie Peutz on AIYS

No Longer Terra Incognita

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The war and humanitarian crisis in Yemen has sparked a series of recent publications on the situation there, a situation which seems to change daily and yet remain the same quagmire. Given the relative lack of reporting earlier in the war, the more books on the Yemen crisis the better. In 2017 there was Marieke Brandt’s Tribes and Politics in Yemen: A History of the Houthi Conflict (London: Hurst), Ginny Hill’s Yemen Endures: Civil War, Saudi Adventurism and the Future of Arabia (Oxford: Oxford University Press), Sarah Phillips’ Yemen and the Politics of Permanent Crisis (NY: Routledge), and Helen Lackner and Daniel Martin Varisco’s edited Yemen and the Gulf States: The Making of a Crisis. Berlin: Gerlach. Among the recent entries in 2018 are Helen Lackner’s Yemen in Crisis: Autocracy, Neo-Liberalism and the Disintegration of a State (London: Saqi Books), Laurent Bonnefoy’s Yemen and the World: Beyond Insecurity (Oxford: Oxford University Press), Isa Blumis’ Destroying Yemen: What Chaos in Arabia Tells Us about the World (Berkeley: University of California Press), and Marie-Christine Heinze’s edited Yemen and the Search for Stability: Power, Politics and Society after the Arab Spring (London: I. B. Tauris).

Marie Christine Heinze’s edited volume has 13 articles in addition to an Introduction by the editor. The articles were originally written for a conference at the University of Bonn in 2014 with a focus on the aftermath of the Arab Spring and the National Dialogue Conference (NDC). Events since the start of the Saudi-led war are not covered, but the volume is important for analysis of this transition period. Among the topics covered are the role of intellectuals in Yemen after the Arab Spring, feminist resistance and gender dynamics, the mobilization of tribes in Mahra, Southern views of the Yemeni state, the governance of the reform process, women’s empowerment in the NDC, the competing roles of the Huthis, Islah and the Salafis, the impact of youth, fashion and theater, the threats to Yemen’s heritage and the future role of federalism.

AIYS members Charles Schmitz and Sheila Carapico have written positive endorsements of the volume on the back cover.

This volume can be ordered here.

Travels to Aden and Mocha in the mid 19th Century, #5

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This post continues the story of Joseph B. F. Osgood (1823-1913), whose Notes of Travel or Recollections of Majunga, Zanzibar, Muscat, Aden, Mocha, and other Eastern Ports (Salem: George Creamer, 1854) describes the Arabian coastline, like a 19th century Ibn Baṭūṭṭa. For Part #1, click here; for Part #2, click here; for Part #3, click here; for Part #4, click here.

Osgood gives a lengthy discussion of the coffee trade at Mocha:

[p. 166] “In the year 1800, when the Americans adopted the popular idea of invigorating the body and clarifying the mind with the berry of Mocha, sixteen thousand bales of coffee were annually sent by dows to Jiddah, and thence by caravans to Constantinople, or by sea to Suez, and across Egypt to Abyssinia, whence it found its way over Europe. To Salem merchants belongs the credit of striking out at this time a new branch of maritime trade, which amply rewarded their enterprise, if anything can be judged from the fact that in 1805 a favorable trade and increasing competition had raised the price of coffee to fifty dollars a bale: and even at this price so great was the demand that eleven American vessels were at the port of Mocha at one time waiting for cargoes. Another interesting fact, and one to be proud of in our commercial history, is, that until the year 1822, at which time Mocha was paying an annual tribute of one thousand bales of coffee to the Pasha of Egypt, no direct trade had been carried on between Mocha and Europe by sea, except by [p. 167] American vessels, the cargoes of which were purchased almost exclusively with specie.

Continue reading Travels to Aden and Mocha in the mid 19th Century, #5

Travels to Aden and Mocha in the mid 19th Century, #4

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Captain William Kidd

This post continues the story of Joseph B. F. Osgood (1823-1913), whose Notes of Travel or Recollections of Majunga, Zanzibar, Muscat, Aden, Mocha, and other Eastern Ports (Salem: George Creamer, 1854) describes the Arabian coastline, like a 19th century Ibn Baṭūṭṭa. For Part #1, click here; for Part #2, click here; for Part #3, click here.

Among the legends that Osgood tells, is a surprising one about the pirate Captain Kidd.  This notorious pirate went to the Indian Ocean to raid ships there. His sunken ship the “Adventure Galley” was discovered off the coast of Madagascar in 2015. His big mistake was taking a merchant ship named the “Quedach Merchant” in 1698. Owned by a Mughal merchant, its crew was international: an English captain, two Dutch officers, several Indian seamen and Armenian merchants. Even though it carried a French flag, Kidd captured the ship and renamed it the “Adventure Prize,” sailing it back to the Caribbean and eventually New York. Because of the English connection, Kidd was sent to Scotland for trial and hanged to death in 1701.

There are many rumors about his treasure, and some of these, like one of Osgood, place it in the Red Sea:

[p. 159] Having been drifted about by light winds, it was not till the third morning after leaving Aden, that we passed Babel-Mandeb Peak, rearing its lofty summit of black crumbling rock, eight hundred feet above our heads, and entered Babel-Mandeb Strait, or the Gate of Mourning. We passed through the narrow strait, which is about a mile and a fourth wide, between Babel- Mandeb Peak and Perim Island. Speaking of Perim Island, it will be remembered that Capt. Kidd, who, in 1697, sailed from New York, in the Adventure Galley, [p. 160] in search of buccaneers, turned pirate, and near here, captured a rich Queda merchantman. He landed upon this island, and who knows but that the long sought after buried treasures of the daring buccaneer may yet be unearthed at Perim Island? Surely it looks like the place of all places the twice hanged captain would have chosen to bury his bible to gain the good graces of the evil one. The English had a force stationed here when Bonaparte had thoughts of subduing India.”

more to come

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