Category Archives: Arab Spring

International Women’s Day 2017

drivingIn celebration of International Women’s Day 2017, the Middle East Program, the Global Women’s Leadership Initiative, and Women in Public Service Project at the Wilson Center collected essays from 33 women in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the United States, and elsewhere to mark the occasion. We bring together their responses—which cover a wide geographic region and a wide range of views—in this publication. The full publication is available here.

Amatalalim Alsoswa, former Yemeni Minister For Human Rights, and founder of Yemeni Women National Committee (Yemen)

Unfortunately, the United Nation’s attempts to establish a ceasefire in Yemen to stop the war that began on March 26, 2015 have been unsuccessful, because of the intransigence of the involved parties.

According to the United Nations Humanitarian Response Plan, in 2017, 18.8 million people are in need of humanitarian aid, and 10.3 million people are in “acute” need of humanitarian aid. Health care, educational services, and the public treasury are collapsing, and famine has become widespread. Many people are unable to send their children to school because so many people have stopped working, there is a shortage of textbooks, and the costs of studying in government and private schools are high.

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Yemen Exchange in Beirut

April 12-16, 2017
Application Deadline I March 15/Deadline II April 1, 2017
35 slots only/Rolling acceptanceThe First Yemen Exchange (convened in Beirut, Lebanon) is co-hosted by the Sanaa Center for Strategic Studies (SCSS) and Mideastwire.com. During the five day program, participants from around the world will listen and engage Yemeni politicians, civil society figures and analysts in order to provide direct and intensive insight into Yemen, from several differing perspectives. As such, the Exchange is a fundamental part of SCSS’s attempt to increase the content, space and conversations on Yemen with the hope that increased dialogue and understanding will ultimately help to create the conditions for sustainable peace-building. The five day Yemen Exchange rests on two tracks:

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New Book: Arabia Incognita

In 2011, millions of Yemenis calling themselves the Peaceful Youth joyfully joined the “Arab Spring.” Four years later, popular aspirations for social justice and a serious attempt at national dialogue were thwarted by deadly domestic power struggles. When the pro-Saudi, US-supported government fled to Riyadh in April 2015, the Kingdom led a multinational military intervention inside Yemen. By December, daily bombardment had killed thousands of fighters and civilians, injured and displaced hundreds of thousands, and decimated homes and infrastructure. A naval blockade cut off access to fuel, medicine, and food for millions. In addition to this humanitarian catastrophe, the ensuing chaos emboldened al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and led the group ISIS to expand there.

Perfect for understanding the political economy, geopolitics and social relations of the region.Prof. Laleh Khalili, University of London, SOAS

Arabia Incognita helps readers understand this tragic misadventure by tracing the Arabian Peninsula’s modern history from Yemen’s strong anti-imperial movement of the 1960s through the present series of conflicts. The majority of the essays focus on Yemen’s colorful and complex internal socio-political dynamics; others draw attention to parallel, often inter-connected disharmonies inside the Gulf’s petro-kingdoms; wider regional upheavals and movements; and America’s deep, vast and very problematic security involvement in the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula.

Contents:

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AIYS MESA Roundtable on Destruction of Yemen’s Heritage

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The following roundtable will take place at the annual MESA meeting in Boston on November 18.

[R4434] The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Yemen and Current Preservation Efforts

Created by Daniel Mahoney
Friday, 11/18/16 10:00am
Participants: McGuire Gibson, David B. Hollenberg, Krista Lewis, Lamya Khalidi

SUMMARY:
This roundtable, sponsored by the American Institute for Yemeni studies, will discuss the destruction of cultural heritage in Yemen, in light of the Saudi coalition air strikes as well as the ensuing internal conflict and rising Islamism, in order to assess the extent of damage and solutions for current protection and future preservation. Since March 2015, Saudi coalition air strikes have been conducted in Yemen under the stated purpose of countering Houthi rebels who had taken control of the capital Sanaa and a large part of the country. This offensive has left over 6,000 dead, over 30,000 wounded, and 2.5 million internally displaced. Another result has been the continuous destruction of over 47 archaeological sites and monuments, as confirmed by Mohannad Al-Sayani, director of the General Organization for Antiquities and Museums of Yemen. These include not only historical mosques and citadels, but also 3 UNESCO World Heritage sites including the celebrated vernacular architecture of old Sanaa, the pre-Islamic cities of Baraqish and Sirwah, and the famed Marib dam, all of which have already previously undergone significant restoration efforts. Additionally, more than six museums have been damaged by aerial shelling, among them the regional museum of Dhamar and the National Museum of Sanaa. This extensive destruction clearly provokes further questioning into the motivations of these campaigns which seem to target highly valued places of cultural heritage. The pattern becomes further complicated by the confirmation that, while the U.S. State Department (and UNESCO) had given the Saudi coalition a list of specific sites to avoid and their location, they also provided it with logistical support and intelligence for their military offensive. Conversely, other efforts have are being made to try to preserve and document Yemeni heritage before it is lost, such as the Yemeni Manuscript Digitization Initiative, wherein a team of scholars from inside and outside of Yemen are working together to create a digital library of manuscripts taken from private collections in Yemen. By addressing current damage, this round table is organized with the intention of raising awareness regarding the destruction of priceless world heritage and finding current and future solutions for its protection and preservation by local authorities and specialists.

AIYS at MESA 2016

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The annual MESA conference will be held in Boston this year from November 17-20.

AIYS–American Institute for Yemeni Studies
Thursday, 11/17  Board Meeting, 4-6pm, Orleans (4)
The Board meeting is for AIYS board members.

Friday, 11/18  Business Meeting, 5:30-6:30pm, Brandeis (3)
The business meeting is open to anyone who is interested.

AIYS sponsored Panel:
[P4302] Yemen: From Zaydi Revivalism to Huthi Expansionism

Created by Marieke Brandt
Chair: Daniel Martin Varisco
Saturday, 11/19/16 10:00am
•    The Curriculum and channels of knowledge for contemporary Zaydi ‘ulama’ in the Yemeni highlands by Hollenberg, David B.
•    Itineraries of expansion: The Sa‘dah Wars revisited by Brandt, Marieke
•    Antiauthoritarianism, Outreach and Misdirection: Unpacking the Houthis’ March to Sana’a and Beyond by Salisbury, Peter
•    Strategic Implications of Huthi Expansionism, Perpetual Insecurity and Internal War in Yemen by Seitz, Adam
SUMMARY:
Zaydism is a branch of Shia Islam which can look back on a millennium of continuity in the northern parts of Yemen. Since Zaydism is regarded as a particularly tolerant form of Islam, its coexistence with Yemen’s other denominations was historically largely unproblematic. About 25 years ago, however, a development started which substantially undermined the coexistence of denominations in Yemen. The increasing spread of radical Sunnism (Salafism and Wahhabism) in Yemen, funded by neighboring Saudi Arabia, as well as the economic and political neglect of large sections of the Zaydi north by the Salih regime has led to the emergence of a Zaydi revivalism movement which was inspired by a deep sense of peril. As a result, previously unknown divisions and fault lines between Sunni and Shiite denominations began to arise in Yemen.
In 2001 a group known as Ansar Allah or Huthis, taking their name from the family of a noted Zaydi scholar, splintered off the nascent Zaydi revival movement by schism. In 2004 the Salih regime entered into a brutal six-year war against the Huthis, creating a martyr with the killing of Husayn al-Huthi, a prominent critic of Salih’s regime. After the resignation of President Salih in 2012, the Huthis were able to conquer large parts of northern Yemen including the capital Sana’a which they seized in 2014 with the assistance of army troops still loyal to Salih. The military campaign against the Huthis carried out by a Saudi-led international alliance of Sunni states, which began in 2015, has eventually turned Yemen into a central crisis zone and humanitarian disaster in today’s globalizing world. Although very much a proxy war in the expanding sectarian rhetoric between Saudi Arabia and Iran, the ongoing war has turned Yemen into an internal struggle for power between numerous groups and ideologies.
The panel aims at elucidating historical roots and current aspects of both Zaydi revivalism and Huthi expansionism by the means and tools of a number of scholarly disciplines (religious studies, social anthropology, political science, and strategic studies). The panel focuses on Huthi struggles to demarcate a Zaydi identity in the Modern Middle East; the impact of the so called “Sa’dah Wars” which the Yemeni state waged against the Huthis from 2004 to 2010; Huthi politics of political alliances since 2011; and strategic aspects of Huthi expansionist ambitions in Yemen. Through considering this wide array of aspects, the panel aims to shed light on the often opaque transformations and developments of previous years and decades and thus to achieve a better understanding of current conflict in Yemen.

Other Yemen Papers at MESA

[P4369-18299] The Southern Baptist Medical Mission to Yemen, 1964-2002 by Asher Orkaby (Sunday, 11/20/16 8:00am)

[P4627-19118] The State Crisis in Yemen. The Quest for the Republic of South Arabia, Other Statutory Solutions and the Fight for Power by Susanne Dahlgren (Friday, 11/18/16 8:00am)

[P4520-18781] “Ittassilli, ya Marina”: Friendship, Frustration and Despair in Yemen by Marina de Regt (Friday, 11/18/16 5:45pm)

Yemen at Gulf Research Meeting

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Dr. Najwa Adra  (4th from left), AIYS member, presenting her paper at GRM in Cambridge.

The annual Gulf Research Meeting (GRM) was held in Cambridge, England last week (August 16-19).  Given the current crisis in Yemen, there was considerable attention paid to the conflict.  AIYS President Daniel Varisco and noted expert on Yemen Helen Lackner organized a panel on “Yemen and the GCC: Future Relations.”

A total of 13 papers were presented:
• Najwa Adra: “Tribes in Yemen: A Problem or Potential Solution”
• Hanin Abou Salem:  “Yemen & the GCC: Sectarianism & Future Relations”
• Ahmed Baabood: “The Future Role of Oman in Yemen”
• Marieke Brandt:  “Yemen’s Arduous Road to Peace: Twelve Years of Mediation with the Ḥūthīs Revisited”
•Maria-Louise Clausen:  “How Being Defined as a Fragile State can Legitimize Intervention: The Case of Yemen”
• Sterling Jensen “The Future of Yemen: The Economic and Security Roles of the GCC”
• Ashraf Mishrif: “Role of GCC in Yemen’s Economic Development”
• Raza Naeem (distance presentation) “ Understanding the Rise of Radicalism in Yemen; and Notes from Pakistan”
• Arash Reisinezhad and Parisa Farhadi (distance presentation): “Ambiguous Connections: Iran and the Yemeni Houthis”
• Daniel Martin Varisco: “Developing Yemen’s Futures:  Can Arabia Ever be Felix Again?”
• AJG Wight and RJ Spencer: “Rehabilitating the Yemeni Defence and Security Establishment”
• Cornelia Zeineddin:  “The Gulf Countries’ Foreign Policy Changes and Standpoint in Yemen”
• Mahjoob Zweiri:  “Yemen in the Context of Iran-Gulf Relations”

new article on Yemeni youth

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Tricking Time, Overthrowing a Regime: Reining in the Future in the Yemeni Youth Revolution
by Ross Porter
The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology , Vol. 34, 2016

Abstract

Based on research at the heart of the 2011 revolution in Yemen, this article explores how a capacity to inhabit the future culminated in a collective act of temporal deception on the part of the revolutionaries. Contrary to the prevalent assumption that the future is something that is worked towards, aspired to, emerging or lying in wait at the end of a distant telos, revolutionary life in Yemen asserts that the future can itself be a way of being, but in the present. Upholding the future involved dramatic acts of selflessness whose value lay not just in where they would lead, but in the acts themselves. This fusion of means and ends, presents and futures, ultimately bred a capacity for endurance that defied the temporal expectations of the regime.

From Weddings to Funerals

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As the war in Yemen drags on over a year, the people face a humanitarian crisis that has no recent parallel in the country’s history.  Humans rights violations have occurred on all sides, as the fighting takes a major toll on civilians.  Mwatana Organization for Human Rights has produced a documentary on a Saudi coalition bombing strike that killed men, women and children at a wedding in a rural village with no military significance at all.  There is a desperate need for an end to all the fighting and a recognition that the sectarian violence behind the current conflict is in no one’s favor, least of all the vast majority of Yemen’s suffering citizens.

If you think Mwatana is one-sided, check out this critical report on the Huthis.

Muhammad ʿAbd al-Malik al-Mutawakkil Biography

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Muhammad ʿAbd al-Malik al-Mutawakkil: A Political Biography

Jens Heibach
META, Middle East Topics and Arguments, Vol 4, 2015
PDF available here.

 

Abstract

Muhammad ʿAbd al-Malik al-Mutawakkil (1942-2014), professor of political science at Sanaa University, deputy secretary-general of the Union of Popular Forces, and pioneer of the human rights movement in South Arabia, was one of the few home de lettres in Yemen whose intellectual clout extended far into the Arab world. As an outstanding figure of political and scholarly life in the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, his vita exemplifies the ups and downs of Yemeni politics in the post-imamic, republican era up to the fall of ʿAli ʿAbdallah Salih, just as his writings are an enlightening guide to the understanding of the latter and the Yemeni social fabric as a whole. This article seeks to provide a political biography of a man whose calm and sensible voice many will find missing in these times of turmoil.

Keywords

al-Mutawakkil; Yemen; Intellectual; Opposition; Human Rights; Joint Meeting Parties

Full Text:

PDF

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/meta.2015.4.3260

Jens Heibach is a research associate in the department of Middle Eastern Politics at the Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies at Marburg University. He holds a diploma in political science from the Freie Universität Berlin. His research interests include political opposition, conflict resolution, political Islam as well as politics and society of the Arabian Peninsula.

email: heibach@staff.uni-marburg.de

 

New article on southern Yemen

“Spaces in the Making:” Peripheralization and Spatial injustice in Southern Yemen

Anne-Linda Amira Augustin
META, Middle East Topics and Arguments, Vol. 5 (2015)
PDF available here.

 

Abstract

By using the concept of peripheralization as defined by Fischer-Tahir and Naumann (2013), I examine how processes of change in economy, demography, political decision-making, and socio-cultural norms and values have marginalized southern Yemen after 1990, and especially after the war of 1994. I will argue that politically produced spatial injustice has strengthened the desire for southern Yemeni independence.

Keywords

peripheralization; spatial injustice; Southern Movement; Southern Yemen

Full Text:

PDF

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17192/meta.2015.5.3526

Anne-Linda Amira Augustin is a research associate in Middle Eastern Studies and Sociology in the research network “Re-Configurations. History, Remembrance and Transformation Processes in the Middle East and North Africa” at the Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies at Philipps-University Marburg. She holds a M.A. in Middle Eastern Studies, Russian and French. Her current research interests include independence and protest movements, unrecognized statehood, social space production and memory transmission.