Category Archives: Socotra

Imagine if the British chose Socotra over Aden

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Captain Haines of the Royal British Navy purchased the port of Aden from the sultan of Lahj in 1837, returning in January 1839 with 700 troops to take control and built a refueling depot for the British Navy en route to India. He served as the administration assistant of Aden from 1839-1854. At the time it is estimated that the population of Aden was a mere 600 people, about half of whom were Jews. In seven years the town had been rebuilt and it was home to 25,000 as a free port.

But in 1833 he was on a different mission, an attempt to purchase the island of Socotra from the Mahri sultan in Qishin. Here is his account of meeting with the sultan, who refused to sell his tribal inheritance to the British crown. Imagine if he had and the port of Aden had been ignored…

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‘Rough Pencil Sketch from the Point Bungalo Ras Marbut, Aden’ by Stafford Bettesworth Haines

“Memoir  of the  South  and  East   Coasts  of Arabia.”    By Captain STAFFORD BETTESWORTH HAINES, I. N.
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 15:104-166, 1845

[p. 107] A direct communication by steam being the anxious object of the Supreme Government of India, it was considered probable that Sokoṭrah might answer as a depôt. I was, consequently, sent on a mission to Keshín to obtain the island by purchase.

Continue reading Imagine if the British chose Socotra over Aden

Nathalie Peutz on AIYS

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Nathalie Peutz in Homhil, Soqotra (2003, AIYS fellowship)

It was during my first summer in Yemen as a novice Arabic student at the Yemen Language Center (YLC) in 1999 that I discovered the American Institute for Yemeni Studies and all that it had to offer. Conversations with prominent scholars based at or passing through YLC and a fortuitous meeting with AIYS resident director Marta Colburn led to my applying for a NMERTA/AIYS language fellowship for the following summer and, over time, to a fulfilling career that I owe entirely to Yemen and the repeated forms of AIYS support that helped launch it. Looking back, it is difficult for me to imagine how I would have navigated my anthropological research in Yemen or my academic career without the financial, material, logistical, and social support in addition to the physical base that AIYS provided.

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Justin Stearns on the roof of the AIYS hostel on al-Bawniya Street (2003)

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AIYS Yemeni Fellowships 2018

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The AIYS organized a seminar In Ṣan‘ā’ on Tuesday, August 14, 2018 for the recipients of AIYS Fellowships granted for 2018.  Twelve researchers in different fields received an AIYS Yemeni Fellowship this year. Several researchers and academics attended the seminar in which nine researchers made brief presentation about their proposed researches.

These researchers are:

(1) Dr  Rajha Saad, an  assistant professor in the Library Section at Ṣan‘ā’ University. Her research topic is: “Information Literacy for Displaced People by War in Yemen: A Pilot Study.”

(2) Dr Khaled Naji, an associate professor of Biochemistry, Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ṣan‘ā’ University. His research topic is: “Preventive Effects of Wild Yemeni Monolluma quadrangula Extract on Oxidative Stress associated with Diabetes mellitus in Albino Male Rats.”

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(3) Taha Arrahomi, whose research is: “Role of Monetary Authority in Controlling Money Laundry in Republic of Yemen.”

Continue reading AIYS Yemeni Fellowships 2018

Burrowes on Dr. Abd al-Karim Al-Eryani

AKI Fragments
by Robert Burrowes

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Dr. Abd al-Karim Al-Eryani (AKI) was diminutive—I mean short, really short.  From time to time, a professor in the PhD program in Yale allegedly would come into class and exclaim: “Can’t believe it, but I just saw a driverless car with no one behind the wheel speeding across the campus.” The car he was alluding to was in fact one being driven by AKI who could only look through and not over the wheel.

If it wasn’t Dr. AKI who told me this tale, it was probably Middle East specialist Michael Hudson who did.  He and AKI were PhD students at Yale at the same time, Mike in political science and AKI in biology.  And this reminds me that it was Mike who facilitated my meeting Dr. AKI, and it also lets me illustrate things about the man.  As the following tale suggests, and regardless of his place in government, society or family, Dr. AKI did not tower over people—and this was not a function of his physical size.  He was by nature a welcoming, open and generous man.

At the urging of a political friend in Taiz, I had come  to Sanaa in spring 1976 in order to meet Dr. AKI, head of the Central Planning Organization.  An unemployed American academic and a refugee from Lebanon’s Civil War, I only made it halfway up the stairs to Dr. AKI’s office before I totally lost confidence, stopped and retreated.  Luckily for me, following me down the stairs was my friend Mike Hudson who had just met with his friend, Dr. AKI.  When Mike told me he was going the next day down to the Tihama with Dr. AKI for three days for a ceremony at the Wadi Zabiid Project, I proclaimed my envy.  Mike said:  “No problem. Show up with your bag at the hotel tomorrow morning.  I will introduce you to Dr. AKI and he will invite you to go along.  And that is precisely what happened.

We had a wonderful three days together, going down to and from the Tihama, in Wadi Zabid and for two nights in a modest hotel in al-Hodeidah.  Over these days, I learned more about the politics and recent political history of Yemen than I had over the previous half year in the country.  This proved to be the beginning of my political education—and nearly forty years of friendship.  He welcomed me with open arms dozens of times.  Some three decades later, not long after the Yemeni unification that he had helped engineer, Abd al-Karim invited me and several others for a week’s stay on an extraordinary island, Socotra.  We had a wonderful time, as did the Yemeni politician with the PhD in biology from Yale.  I think Mike Hudson was with us.

Was Dr. AKI politically naïve?  Yes—and no.  I think he was forever a political optimist, and at times I thought he was too much so.  When exasperated colleagues urged that after decades it was time to be rid of Dr. AKI, President Salih is alleged to have said “No, we need him and are going to work and ride him like a donkey until he drops over dead”.

In his second tour as prime minister, Dr. AKI chose as a main task the reform of a greatly inflated, incompetent and costly civil service that had gotten worse over the decades.  After months of effort, he was able to go before President Salih and announce that he had finally achieved agreement on a plan that would eliminate thousands of “shadow” positions, save lots of money and allow the leadership to focus on creating an effective government work force.  In response, the president announced to Dr. AKI that he had just reinforced tribal support for the regime by creating and financing thousands of “shadow” military jobs for tribal militias.  And so it went.

On the other hand, Dr. AKI often revealed a strong sense of political insight and awareness. Introduced to the Arab world in the late 1950s, I was for decades a disciple of Gamal Abdul Nasser, and coming to Yemen in 1975, a year after Ibrahim al-Hamdi seized power, I quickly became something of a disciple to the person many hailed as “the little Nasser”. Early on, I noticed in Dr. AKI a lack of enthusiasm for President al-Hamdi, and at some point I questioned him on this. He answered with a story: “On one of the few times I met alone with Ibrahim he drew close to me, tapped me on my knee, and softly said this:  “‘Abd al-Karim, I have one great weakness—I don’t trust anyone.’  Quickly, Ibrahim’s distrust poisoned his regime and spread to everyone.  And, in the end, his colleagues in the military got him before he got them.”  Clearly, Dr. AKI’s take on al-Hamdi was much better than mine.

Another story told to me by Dr. AKI or someone else in the Al-Eryani family relates to the above.  When the rare military member of the family, the one who had previously advised President Abd al-Rahman al-Eryani on military affairs, returned to Yemen from exile, he told members of the family that the distribution of troops around Sanaa could only mean that the military was positioned to overthrow al-Hamdi.  When he asked family leaders whether he should warn al-Hamdi of the danger, he was told by Dr. AKI that the president, long suspicious and distrustful of the al-Eryani family, would reject the warning, accuse the family of sowing discord, and punish the al-Eryanis.

To donate to the Memorial Fellowship Fund for Yemeni Scholars in honor of Dr. Al-Eryani, click here.

 

 

AIYS at MESA in Denver

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As the war rages on in Yemen and the humanitarian crisis deepens every day, the preparations for this year’s annual MESA meeting is the saddest in my memory.  Although our Sanaa office is closed during the fighting, we were able to provide fellowships for Yemeni scholars and Dr. Dammaj is still as active as the situation allows.  The safety of all in Yemen is our first and primary concern.

This year AIYS will sponsor two panels at MESA, which is being held in Denver Colorado.  The first panel, [P4124] “Turmoil and Tolerance: Unpacking the Current Crisis in Yemen,” will be held Sunday, November 22, from 4:30-6 pm.  The presenters are:

The second panel is a roundtable entitled “What’s Happening In Yemen” with a talk by H.E. Ambassador Amat al-Alim Alsoswa on the current situation in Yemen and discussion by Dan Varisco and Sheila Carapico. This will be held on Monday, November 23, from 11:00 am-12:30 pm.

Our annual AIYS board meeting will be held on Saturday, November 21, 4-6pm, in Director’s Row F, Plaza Building, Lobby Level.  The AIYS business meeting, which is open to all who are interested, will be held on Saturday, November 21 from 7:30-8:30pm, Plaza Court 6, Plaza Building, Concourse Level.

AIYS encourages anyone with an interest and concern for Yemen to attend these important panels.  Please spread the word.

 

 

On Socotri language

Russian roots and Yemen’s Socotra language

by Mansur Mirovalev, Al Jazeera, March 11, 2015

Moscow, Russia – The Semitic language spoken by more than 50,000 inhabitants of Yemen’s Socotra island is a linguistic time machine.

Socotri is the most archaic and isolated of several archaic and isolated tongues spoken in Yemen and Oman known as “modern South Arabian languages”. Its vocabulary is immensely rich – for example, there are distinct verbs for “to go” according to the time of the day, or for “to give birth” depending on the animal involved.

Socotri’s roots are close to the oldest written Semitic tongues that died out thousands of years ago – and it has grammatical features that no longer exist in Arabic, Hebrew or Aramaic. The study of Socotri helps understand the deep, prehistoric past – and the subsequent evolution – of all Semitic tongues.

“This is a very archaic linguistic and literary system that in many ways, I think, has preserved what we, the scholars, are used to perceive as the Biblical world or the ancient Arabic world,” Leonid Kogan, professor of Semitic languages at Moscow’s Institute for Oriental and Classical Studies, told Al Jazeera.

Then how is it that Socotri’s first alphabet was invented five millennia after the cuneiform tablets in Akkadian – the first written Semitic tongue – and it happened some 5,000km north of Socotra, in Russia’s Moscow?

Continue reading On Socotri language

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